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Dr. Leonard Brand

Dr. Leonard Brand

PhD, Professor of Biology and Paleontology, Logos Research Associate

Leonard Brand is Professor of Biology and Paleontology in the Department of Earth and Biological Sciences, at Loma Linda University.  He received his PhD at Cornell University in 1970 and has been on the LLU faculty since then.  He later retrained in geology, with a series of courses and extensive field research experience.  His primary research focus has been on the processes of fossilization and the geological factors that influence preservation of fossils.  He has published over 35 scientific research papers, 60 abstracts at national meetings, and numerous articles in church publications.  He has received a Zapara Award for Distinguished Teaching, a best student paper award at national meetings, and a Distinguished Service Award from LLU.  His strongest long-term interest has been developing a Bible-centered approach to the integration of faith and science.


  • Brand, L. R. 2022. Polygonal linear depressions in the Coconino Sandstone (Permian) of Arizona, and their relevance for interpreting paleoenvironment. Rocky Mountain Geology, v. 57 (2), 99-115. Doi:10.24872/rmgjournal.57.2.99

  • Brand, L. and S. Maithel. 2021. Small-scale soft-sediment deformation structures in the cross-bedded Coconino Sandstone (Permian; Arizona, United States); possible evidence for seismic influence. Frontiers in Earth Science, 9:2395. doi: 10.3389/feart.2021.723495.

  • McLain, M. A., P. V. Ullmann, R. D. Ash, K. Bohnstedt, D. Nelsen, R. O. Clark, L. R. Brand, and A. V. Chadwick. 2021. Independent confirmation of fluvial reworking at a Lance Formation (Maastrichtian) bonebed by traditional and chemical taphonomic analyses. Palaios, v. 36, 193–215

  • Boscovic, D. S., U. L. Vidal, K. E. Nick, R. Esperante, L. R. Brand, K. R. Wright, L. B. Sandberg, and B. C. T. Siviero. 2021. Structural and protein preservation in fossil whale bones from the Pisco Formation (Middle-upper Miocene) Peru. Palaios, v. 36, 155–164. DOI:

  • Maithel, S., L. R Brand, and J. H. Whitmore. 2021. Characterization of hard-to-differentiate dune stratification types in the Permian Coconino Sandstone (Arizona, USA). Sedimentology, 68:238-265. Doi: 10.1111/sed.12774

  • Siviero, B. C. T.,  E. Rega, W. K. Hayes, A. M. Cooper,  L. R. Brand, and A. V. Chadwick.  2020. Skeletal trauma with implications for intratail mobility in Edmontosaurus annectens from a monodominant bonebed, Lance Formation (Maastrichtian), Wyoming, USA. Palaios, 35:201-214. doi:

  • Maithel, S., L. R. Brand, and J. H. Whitmore. 2019. A methodology for disaggregation and textural analysis of quartz-cemented sandstones. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 89:599-609. DOI:

  • Fleming, M., and L. Brand. 2019. The role of wind in sediment removal from potholes in semiarid environments. Geomorphology (2019): 194-205.

  • McLain, M. A., D. Nelsen, K. Snyder, C. T. Griffin, B. Siviero, L. R. Brand, and A. V. Chadwick. 2018. Tyrannosaur cannibalism: a case of a tooth-traced tyrannosaurid bone in the Lance Formation (Maastrichtian), Wyoming. Palaios, 33: 164–173. Doi:

  • Coulson, K., L. Brand, and A. Chadwick. 2016. Microbialite elongation by means of coalescence: an example from the middle Furongian (upper Cambrian) Notch Peak Formation of western Utah. Coulson, K.P. Facies (2016) 62: 1-17. doi:10.1007/s10347-016-0469-5.

  • Coulson, K. P., and L. Brand. 2016. Lithistid sponge-microbial reef-building communities construct laminated, Upper Cambrian (Furongian) ‘stromatolites’. Palaios, 31: 358-370. Doi: (Palaiosaward: 2016 Outstanding Paper – honorable mention)

  • Brand, L. R., and A. V. Chadwick.  2016.  Faith, Reason, and Earth History: A Paradigm of Earth and Biological Origins by Intelligent Design.  3rd edition.  Berrien Springs, MI:  Andrews University Press.

  • Brand, L.  Creation? Really? A Conversation.  In press, Pacific Press.  Discussion of the origins issues written as a conversation between two persons of different philosophical orientations.

  • Brand, L, M. Wang, and A. Chadwick.  2015.  Global database of paleocurrent trends through the Phanerozoic and Precambrian.  Scientific Data (published by Nature), 2:150025 doi: 10.1038/sdata.2015.25 (2015). metadata are available at:

  • Esperante, R., L. Brand, A. Chadwick, and O. Poma.  2015. Taphonomy and paleoenvironmental conditions of deposition of fossil whales in the diatomaceous sediments of the Miocene/Pliocene Pisco Formation, southern Peru – a new lagerstätte.  Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 417: 337-370.

  • Brand, L., M. Urbina, A. Chadwick, R. T DeVries, R. Esperante.  2011.  A high resolution stratigraphic framework for the remarkable fossil cetacean assemblage of the Miocene/Pliocene Pisco Formation, Peru.  South American Journal of Earth Science, 31:414-425.

  • Esperante, R., L. Brand, K. Nick, O. Poma, and M. Urbina. 2008. Exceptional occurrence of fossil baleen in shallow marine sediments of the Neogene Pisco Formation, Southern Peru. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 257:344-360.

  • Brand, L. R.  2007.  Lacustrine deposition in the Bridger Formation: Lake Gosiute extended.  The Mountain Geologist, 44:69-77.

  • Brand, L. R., R. Esperante, A. Chadwick, O. Poma, and M. Alomia.  2004.  Fossil whale preservation implies high diatom accumulation rate in the Miocene-Pliocene Pisco Formation of Peru.  Geology, 32:165-168.

  • Brand, L. R., M. Hussey, and J. Taylor.  2003.  Decay and disarticulation of small vertebrates in controlled experiments.  Journal of Taphonomy, 1 (2): 69-95.

  • Brand, L. R., M. Hussey, and J. Taylor.  2003.  Experimental taphonomy of turtles.  Journal of Taphonomy, 1 (4) 2003 (2004):233-245.

  • Brand, L. R., H. T. Goodwin, P. G. Ambrose, and H. P. Buchheim.   2000.  Taphonomy of  turtles in the Middle Eocene Bridger Formation, SW Wyoming.  Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 162:171-189.

  • Buchheim, H. P., L. R. Brand, and H. T. Goodwin.  2000.  Lacustrine to fluvial flood-plain deposition in the Eocene Bridger Formation.  Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 162:191-209.

  • Brand, L. R.  1996.  Variations in salamander trackways resulting from substrate differences.  Journal of Paleontology, 70:1004-1010.

  • Brand, L. R.  1995.  An improved high-precision Jacob's staff design.  Journal of Sedimentary Research, A65: 561.

  • Brand, L. R.  1992  Reply to comments on "fossil vertebrate footprints in the Coconino Sandstone (Permian) of northern Arizona: evidence for underwater origin."  Geology, 20:668-670.

  • Brand, L.R. and T. Tang. 1991.  Fossil vertebrate footprints in the Coconino Sandstone [Permian] of northern Arizona: evidence for underwater origin.   Geology, 19:1201-1204.

  • Commentaries on this paper were published in: Science News, 141 (4):5, 1992; Geology Today, 8 (3):78-79, 1992; and Nature, 355:110, 9 Jan., 1992.

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